City India

Gujarat

Gujarat is one of the most industrialized states of India, and has a per capita GDP above the national average.

About Gujarat

Gujarat is a state in western India. It has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east and the Arabian Sea as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh on the west. Its capital is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati-speaking people of India.

The state encompasses major sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, such as Lothal and Dholavira. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first ports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires. Mahatma Gandhi, considered India's "father of the nation", was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British colonial rule.

Gujarat played an important role in the economic history of India throughout the history of India. The state has the fastest growing economy in India. It is also one of the most industrialized states of India, and has a per capita GDP almost twice that of the national average.

History
Historically, the state of Gujarat has been one of the main centers of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains major ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was where India's first port was established. Also, Dholavira, the ancient city, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. All together, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat.

The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by their commercial activities. There is a clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.[13] There was a succession of Hindu/Buddhist states such as the Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Solankis. The 11th century history of Gujarat saw the emergence of the Muslims in the political arena of the state. The first Muslim conqueror was Mahmud of Ghazni whose conquest of Somnath effectively ended the rule of the Solankis.

Geography
Gujarat borders with Pakistan's province of Sindh to the north-west, bounded by the Arabian Sea to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the North was known as Anarta, the Kathiawad peninsula, "Saurastra", and the South as "Lata". Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with the longest coast line 1600 km, dotted with 41 ports; 1 major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor ports.

Climate
The relief is low in the most parts of the state and involves diverse climate conditions. The winters are mild, pleasant, and dry with average daytime temperatures around 29 °C (84 °F) and nights around 12 °C (54 °F) with 100 percent sunny days and clear nights. The summers are extremely hot and dry with daytime temperatures around 41 °C (106 °F) and at night no lower than 29 °C (84 °F). In the weeks leading up to the arrival of the monsoon rains the temperatures are similar to above but with high humidity which makes the air feel hotter. Relief comes when the monsoon season starts around in mid June. The day temperatures are lowered to around 35 °C (95 °F) but humidity is very high and nights are around 27 °C (81 °F). Most of the rainfall occurs in this season, and the rain can cause severe floods. The sun is often occluded during the monsoon season. Though mostly dry, it is desertic in the north-west, and wet in the southern districts due to a heavy monsoon season.

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